Бюджетная статистика: реляционные базы
федеральная
региональная
Законы о федеральном бюджете
2005 г. 2004 г.
2003 г. 2002 г.
2000 г. 2001 г.
1998 г. 1999 г.
1996 г. 1997 г.
1994 г. 1995 г.
Нормативные акты
1. Бюджетный Кодекс РФ
2. Бюджетная классификация РФ
3. Налоговый Кодекс РФ (часть I)
4. Налоговый Кодекс РФ (часть II)

 
Журнал Бюджет
    

Бюджетная система Российской Федерации

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Military expenditure by region and country, in constant (1998) US$ m., 1988-2000

Figures are in US $m., at constant 1998 prices and exchange rates. (3)

Военные расходы в ценах 1988 г. (по постоянным обменным курсам), 1988-2000 гг.

Country

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Africa

                       

North Africa

                       

Algeria

582

569

608

622

1041

1119

1362

1319

1502

1807

1911

2021

2329

Libya

4251

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Morocco

1238

1796

1315

1381

1369

1374

1600

1474

1362

. .

. .

. .

. .

Tunisia

296

305

281

287

289

301

311

316

363

359

366

362

365

Sub-Saharan

                     

Angola (4)

. .

. .

773

. .

. .

. .

. .

1165

1811

2059

733

2683

. .

Benin

. .

30,9

29,9

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Botswana

116

126

159

170

158

166

152

139

128

148

191

189

185

Burkina Faso

44,3

55,6

60,5

50,3

49,2

44,6

34,9

35,6

34,6

40,1

39,5

44,1

. .

Burundi

39,9

44,7

47,1

49,4

50,8

50,3

52,6

43,8

50,8

53,0

52,0

61,6

. .

Cameroon

122

127

132

134

130

132

107

102

103

118

137

143

139

Cape Verde

7,1

. .

. .

. .

. .

2,9

3,7

5,8

4,1

4,0

4,5

5,0

. .

Central African Rep.

. .

. .

. .

15,2

15,5

14,1

12,4

11,4

10,5

. .

. .

. .

. .

Chad

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

38,3

30,3

22,6

25,5

18,4

16,1

. .

. .

Congo

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Congo, Dem. Rep. (5)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Côte d’Ivoire

113

121

116

118

116

115

101

. .

96,9

96,9

. .

. .

. .

Djibouti

40,5

39,3

36,5

34,9

35,8

31,6

29,4

27,0

21,4

22,6

22,6

. .

. .

Equatorial Guinea

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

2,8

3,2

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Eritrea (6)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

95,3

74,1

118

137

86,8

197

167

. .

Ethiopia

369

435

242

79

122

135

124

105

118

223

349

653

. .

Gabon

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

15,3

. .

. .

Gambia

2,4

3,2

3,7

4,4

3,6

2,5

2,3

2,7

3,8

4,1

4,0

3,6

. .

Ghana

23,7

25,1

27,0

38,7

42,0

49,2

53,5

54,6

46,0

46,1

57,5

60,7

69,0

Guinea

. .

. .

. .

66,3

52,7

41,2

42,2

. .

. .

41,3

54,7

. .

58,5

Guinea-Bissau (7)

. .

4,4

. .

. .

. .

. .

2,4

2,5

2,1

1,9

2,9

. .

. .

Kenya

366

342

355

277

204

170

142

164

192

200

214

227

260

Lesotho

21,0

28,3

26,7

22,6

18,6

17,1

20,7

22,0

22,6

26,3

28,2

. .

. .

Liberia(8)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

7,8

. .

Madagascar(9)

39,0

37,5

39,2

40,6

38,3

36,6

30,8

28,3

40,9

52,2

52,8

52,8

48,1

Malawi

16,6

18,0

17,0

15,1

16,8

17,5

17,1

14,1

14,4

13,7

. .

. .

. .

Mali

35,9

36,9

35,4

. .

. .

44,0

47,2

50,5

47,6

55,3

54,6

61,7

76,4

Mauritania

34,5

30,5

28,7

27,1

26,1

25,4

24,3

22,8

22,1

21,0

. .

. .

. .

Mauritius

5,8

7,8

9,7

11,0

11,3

11,0

11,4

11,9

11,1

9,2

8,5

9,9

. .

Mozambique (10)

110

138

125

123

123

133

156

69,1

63,4

71,1

85,3

103

103

Namibia (11)

. .

. .

. .

141

106

63,2

50,4

56,0

59,9

74,3

78,9

108

. .

Niger

12,8

14,3

31,0

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Nigeria (12)

976

663

857

1645

903

670

857

987

837

903

1055

1946

1394

Rwanda (13)

35,3

41,7

95,5

132

108

105

28,4

60,1

86,1

79,2

87,5

88,6

59,9

Senegal (14)

74,6

76,4

78,2

76,1

74,0

86,9

71,0

72,4

71,2

70,9

68,3

72,5

. .

Seychelles

14,5

16,1

16,7

18,1

21,0

13,2

11,6

10,7

10,3

11,2

11,7

11,2

10,0

Sierra Leone

6,1

9,6

10,8

18,6

23,6

25,4

24,0

23,2

17,0

8,1

5,0

9,4

8,3

Somalia

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

South Africa

4344

4286

4219

3565

3138

2858

3023

2691

2337

2151

1921

1833

2127

Sudan (15)

324

. .

378

268

229

255

199

160

81,4

95,0

213

267

322

Swaziland

8,6

9,2

13,4

14,0

18,7

21,1

21,6

22,4

22,8

23,0

22,7

21,9

. .

Tanzania

. .

. .

. .

133

132

86,8

81,5

105

104

104

105

121

. .

Togo

39,7

41,7

42,7

39,8

39,4

43,1

31,6

29,9

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Uganda

67,9

86,1

96,1

92,2

70,7

84,5

79,7

80,4

99,7

115

146

154

137

Zambia (16)

125

181

159

109

122

55,3

63,9

80,3

47,5

60,7

61,1

31,2

. .

Zimbabwe (17)

278

280

284

269

215

191

199

197

200

212

173

213

401

America

                       

Central America

                     

Belize

. .

5,4

5,7

5,5

6,0

6,9

8,7

8,6

8,0

9,3

. .

. .

. .

Costa Rica (18)

31,7

31,0

27,5

25,0

23,5

27,9

31,5

45,7

61,4

62,5

. .

. .

. .

El Salvador

279

283

240

218

189

145

123

114

103

99,9

104

109

. .

Guatemala

225

220

213

211

227

225

235

170

149

122

125

126

. .

Honduras

65,3

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

63

. .

. .

. .

. .

32,6

. .

Mexico

1316

1395

1449

1598

1769

1934

2414

2132

2240

2322

2293

2424

2441

Nicaragua (19)

150

109

225

48,4

39,2

34,5

33,5

30,6

28,0

26,2

25,0

25,7

. .

Panama (20)

113

111

81,0

86,4

91,9

99,8

103

99,9

103

119

. .

. .

. .

North America

                     

Canada (21)

10657

10570

10580

9541

9605

9560

9338

8750

7964

7371

7898

8191

7710

USA (21)

403853

399572

381794

335436

354293

335582

316763

298228

282047

280599

274278

275014

280620

South America

                     

Argentina (22)

5726

5333

3615

3872

3988

4210

4239

4450

4210

4067

3964

4196

4524

Bolivia

. .

116

158

153

142

144

146

144

141

168

205

154

. .

Brazil (23)

11761

13382

9212

5816

5659

7473

7503

11011

9499

11648

10976

10132

14866

Chile (24)

1821

1738

1658

1706

1763

1817

2059

2091

2216

2244

2564

2259

1747

Colombia

1682

1882

1908

1834

1954

1994

1891

2141

2507

2857

2180

2390

2242

Ecuador

339

321

330

388

490

535

490

362

411

. .

. .

. .

. .

Guyana

2,5

3,6

4,0

3,2

4,9

5,5

6,6

6,2

5,6

. .

. .

. .

. .

Paraguay

63,3

88,0

88,8

122

119

109

110

115

116

113

104

88,7

85,6

Peru (19)

1770

1242

1041

754

907

847

876

833

795

. .

. .

. .

. .

Uruguay

390

425

409

316

420

326

482

296

282

279

272

. .

. .

Venezuela

2128

2123

2114

1572

1452

1817

1319

1464

895

1174

1251

1270

. .

Asia and Oceania

                   

Central Asia

                       

Kazakhstan (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

1142

730

753

814

760

752

629

608

Kyrgyzstan (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

105

85,1

79,7

136

130

161

149

189

185

Tajikistan (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

163

151

86,0

61,8

66,5

95,3

84,2

83,1

. .

Turkmenistan (26)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

423

377

363

550

466

504

646

Uzbekistan (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

265

414

553

642

. .

982

. .

East Asia

                       

Brunei (27)

260

260

307

306

292

260

267

255

279

322

356

. .

. .

Cambodia

42,7

54,5

57,9

48,7

70,6

60,5

106,2

105,0

94,2

93,3

79,6

79,7

78,0

China, P. R. (28)

. .

11100

12100

12700

15400

14200

13600

13900

15300

16600

19000

21100

23000

Indonesia

667

684

756

769

828

795

878

925

1006

1084

896

942

1114

Japan

. .

33298

34258

35024

35863

36274

36461

36814

37533

37700

37739

37690

37836

Korea, North (29)

1756

1845

1961

2030

2083

2133

2190

. .

. .

. .

. .

1327

1345

Korea, South

7195

7414

7536

7765

8224

8596

8853

9313

9809

10050

9700

9743

10013

Laos

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

36,3

31,0

. .

. .

. .

Malaysia

832

998

1072

1458

1450

1540

1669

1744

1677

1576

1158

1718

1451

Mongolia

. .

. .

62,1

46,7

34,1

32,3

29,2

25,3

21,1

19,3

19,9

20,4

21,8

Myanmar

2907

5164

6139

5327

6171

7104

7551

8027

8572

7128

5873

. .

. .

Philippines

970

923

747

681

677

766

816

945

917

1004

939

837

844

Singapore

1797

1989

2283

2363

2510

2591

2679

3206

3515

3944

4466

4508

4362

Taiwan

6389

6890

7583

8039

8189

8411

9428

9352

8507

8765

9030

7896

7222

Thailand

1764

1753

1803

1939

2180

2393

2417

2599

2593

2555

2426

2061

1824

Viet Nam

650

1244

1208

848

535

419

572

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

South Asia

                       

Afghanistan

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Bangladesh

360

380

371

375

429

466

522

546

536

567

584

607

632

India

7947

8160

8054

7532

7211

8139

8112

8341

8569

9309

9390

10731

12315

Nepal (30)

31,6

34,4

35,8

36,7

38,1

39,8

39,5

39,1

38,8

41,2

42,3

45,5

48,5

Pakistan

2748

2745

2871

3079

3293

3288

3204

3257

3253

3117

3111

3064

3097

Sri Lanka

225

174

236

322

361

387

450

756

707

628

658

593

870

Oceania

                       

Australia

6290

6262

6291

6399

6791

7098

7052

6830

6746

6825

7111

7087

6652

Fiji

27,8

32,0

31,0

30,8

28,1

28,8

28,5

27,7

28,1

25,5

24,0

26,6

. .

New Zealand

941

892

816

741

665

627

592

565

563

630

665

613

626

Papua New Guinea

. .

. .

59,4

42,4

45,8

51,8

63,2

46,2

59,6

63,2

. .

38,8

. .

Europe

                       

Albania

. .

. .

128

. .

69,6

60,9

57,2

59,2

46,9

39,5

37,2

48,3

. .

Armenia (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

270

154

. .

255

220

272

273

293

370

Austria

1847

1827

1847

1855

1801

1818

1826

1811

1795

1797

1796

1837

1777

Azerbaijan (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

1179

947

582

329

338

378

406

513

569

Belarus (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

1435

2049

2058

817

627

1027

961

961

1169

Belgium

5137

5058

4964

4894

4019

3817

3795

3719

3646

3666

3664

3662

3677

Bosnia-Herzegovina (31)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

164

237

129

152

216

227

. .

Bulgaria

1389

1196

1280

810

548

447

364

379

293

272

312

351

337

Croatia (32)

. .

. .

. .

. .

1240

1340

1351

1687

1352

1171

1179

922

690

Cyprus

221

227

338

332

454

204

215

192

289

395

397

320

. .

Czech Rep. (33)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

1148

1075

1014

997

946

1040

1123

1141

Czechoslovakia (34)

1816

2683

2334

2398

2702

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Denmark

2935

2864

2866

2917

2864

2870

2798

2770

2777

2814

2847

2829

2738

Estonia (35)

. .

. .

. .

. .

25,7

34,6

44,0

43,6

42,4

56,6

59,9

74,5

88,0

Finland

1736

1732

1762

1840

1873

1820

1790

1662

1878

1755

1908

1639

1630

France

45229

45818

45600

45906

44436

43954

44177

42009

40978

41152

40042

40386

40442

Georgia (36)

. .

. .

. .

. .

180

319

406

212

211

246

173

143

108

German DR

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Germany

45911

45757

48239

44646

42452

38185

35615

34980

34286

33065

33146

33816

33025

Greece

5008

4691

4745

4499

4678

4564

4643

4742

5026

5357

5836

6111

6320

Hungary

1777

1477

1255

964

889

800

678

598

541

515

618

707

733

Iceland

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ireland

466

465

605

598

603

608

636

642

677

717

723

808

803

Italy

23013

23195

22309

22624

21974

22091

21545

19672

21696

22751

23478

24397

23787

Latvia (37)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

46,1

53,7

52,0

40,4

39,2

42,0

54,8

67,1

Lithuania (38)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

73,1

39,5

41,1

48,3

79,3

134

106

154

Luxembourg

111

102

106

117

122

111

123

120

123

133

143

145

145

Macedonia (39)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

97,5

77,4

79,7

89,0

83,3

Malta

25,2

25,0

22,0

22,4

26,7

28,4

30,5

30,6

32,6

31,7

29,1

28,3

28,2

Moldova (25)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

88,4

57,2

83,5

81,4

85,8

57,0

43,2

35,9

Netherlands

8440

8524

8283

8055

8008

7355

7097

6893

6933

6863

6836

7191

6797

Norway

3251

3341

3366

3265

3539

3298

3465

3129

3169

3117

3325

3342

3227

Poland

4443

3747

3975

2754

2717

3011

2905

2923

3075

3239

3363

3343

3332

Portugal

2108

2212

2274

2334

2398

2314

2258

2426

2337

2391

2336

2457

2511

Romania

1769

1819

1806

1755

1382

834

981

975

894

963

827

660

633

Russia (40)

438000

406000

343000

. .

80400

70900

68600

43400

39500

42200

30600

37900

43900

Slovak Rep. (41)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

348

359

462

431

421

398

347

363

Slovenia (42)

. .

. .

. .

. .

338

292

287

329

338

323

302

282

302

Spain (43)

8811

9116

8536

8274

7650

8319

7487

7760

7580

7650

7524

7720

7997

Sweden

5212

5411

5450

5059

4978

4921

4840

4213

3643

4879

5036

5260

5408

Switzerland

4382

4467

4738

4586

4465

3968

4078

3507

3318

3202

3126

3026

2940

UK (21)

48741

48916

47697

49270

44537

43544

42110

38818

39463

37032

37232

36780

36262

Ukraine (44)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

1445

6184

6410

6053

6318

6187

5307

6038

Yugoslavia (45)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Yugoslavia (former)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Middle East

                     

Bahrain

205

213

232

252

270

261

265

274

291

289

296

. .

. .

Egypt

3196

2577

2537

2554

2546

2470

2450

2304

2303

2323

2369

2508

. .

Iran

3345

3156

3652

3811

3637

4568

6197

4588

5189

5821

5737

5432

7144

Iraq

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Israel

7900

7617

7958

7636

7811

7298

7349

7478

8013

8119

8489

8453

8912

Jordan

863

673

588

576

559

595

667

725

651

675

708

742

768

Kuwait

1858

2307

8897

11472

5683

2751

2991

3302

2814

2146

2030

2095

2487

Lebanon

317

. .

666

337

600

501

630

644

565

473

456

568

. .

Oman

1782

1790

2009

1664

1995

1876

1988

2005

1902

1800

1612

1577

. .

Saudi Arabia

16137

15005

15007

28611

15465

17468

15091

13301

13287

17514

20828

18674

19082

Syria

3254

3328

3087

4991

4625

3661

3951

3976

3695

3796

3996

4105

4469

Turkey

4280

4950

5984

6150

6469

7154

7006

7185

8044

8380

8781

9696

10535

UAE (46)

2265

2204

2192

2064

1943

1852

1782

1753

1708

1672

1641

1609

. .

Yemen

. .

. .

625

586

575

504

530

403

396

454

396

389

368

Yemen, North

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Yemen, South

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Получить данные в формате Microsoft Excel 97

Методологические пояснения

http://www.sipri.org


NOTE!!! This is the footnotes for the SIPRI Yearbook 2001 and do not directly apply to the figures for 1988, 1989 and 1990.

Conventions:

( ) Uncertain figure.

[ ] SIPRI estimate.

 | Change of multiple.

Notes:

1 Contributions of military expenditure data, estimates and advice are gratefully acknowledged from Julian Cooper (Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham), Dimitar Dimitrov (University of National and World Economy, Sofia), Paul Dunne (Middlesex University, London), Jean-Paul Hébert (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherches sur la Paix et d’Etudes Stratégiques, CIRPES, Paris), Ivan Hostnik (Centre for Strategic Studies, Slovenia), Guy Lamb (Centre for Conflict Resolution, Cape Town), Reuven Pedatzur (Tel Aviv University), Leonid Polyakov (Ukraine Centre for Economic & Political Studies, Kiev), Thomas Scheetz (Buenos Aires), Ron Smith (Birkbeck College, London), Shaoguang Wang (Chinese University of Hong Kong) and Ozren Zunec (University of Zagreb).

2 Military expenditure data from different volumes of the SIPRI Yearbook should not be combined because of data revision between volumes. Revision can be significant; e.g., when a better time series becomes available, the entire SIPRI series is revised accordingly.

3 Figures in constant dollars are converted using the market exchange rate for all countries except Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, North Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. For these countries conversion to dollars has been done using the purchasing power parity (PPP) rates from World Development Indicators 2000 (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Washington, DC, Mar. 2000).

4 The figure for Angola should be seen in the context of highly uncertain economic statistics because of the impact of war on the Angolan economy.

5 Formerly Zaire.

6 Eritrea became independent from Ethiopia in May 1993. Figures for 1995 include expenditure for demobilization.

7 Figures in local currency are in Communauté financière africaine (CFA) francs. Up to and including the SIPRI Yearbook 1998, data were expressed in pesos. The peso was replaced in 1997 at the rate of 65 pesos per CFA franc.

8 The figure for Liberian military expenditure in 1999 is for security, which represents 13% of total expenditure of L$2.6 billion.

9 Figures include expenditure for the gendarmerie and the National Police.

10 Figures include expenditure for the demobilization of government and RENAMO soldiers and the formation of a new unified army from 1994 onwards.

11 Namibia became independent on 21 Mar. 1990. During the period 1990/91–1992/93 military construction accounted for more than half of Namibian military expenditure. Figures for 1999 refer to the budget of the Ministry of Defence only. In addition to this the 1999 budget of the Ministry of Finance includes a contingency provision of 104 million ND for the Namibian military presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

12 Figures for Nigeria before 1999 are understated because of the use by the military of a favourable specific dollar exchange rate.

13 Figures for Rwanda in 1997 do not include demobilization allowance of 1.0 billion francs. The figure for 1998 is the official defence budget. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) there are additional sources of funding for military activities, both within budget and extra-budgetary. Alternative estimates put Rwanda’s military expenditure at twice the official figure.

14 Figures for Senegal do not include expenditure for paramilitary forces, which in 1998 amounted to 21 100 million francs.

15 Sudan changed its currency from pounds to dinars on 1 Sep. 1999, at the rate of one dinar to 10 pounds.

16 Figures for Zambia are uncertain, especially in constant dollars and GDP shares, because of very rapid inflation and several changes in the currency.

17 The figure for Zimbabwe in 1999 includes a supplementary allocation of 1800 million ZD.

18 Figures are official figures from the Costa Rican Ministry for Internal Security.

19 This state has changed currency during the period. All figures have been converted to the most recent currency.

20 The Panamanian defence forces were disbanded in 1990 and replaced by the national guard, consisting of the national police and the air and maritime services.

21 Figures are for fiscal year rather than for calendar year.

22 Figures are uncertain because of very rapid inflation and a change in the currency. All figures have been converted to the most recent currency.

23 The figure for Brazil in 2000 is for the adopted budget and is likely to be significantly revised downwards, since actual defence expenditure is usually much lower than budgeted.

24 Figures for Chile are based on estimates by the IMF of military expenditures which include military pensions and direct transfers from the Corporación del Cobre (CODELCO) for military purchases.

25 Became independent after the breakup of the Soviet Union in Dec. 1991. Figures are converted to dollars using the PPP.

26 Turkmenistan became independent after the breakup of the Soviet Union in Dec. 1991. Figures are converted to dollars using the PPP. The coverage of this series is not consistent over time due to classification changes in the Turkmenistan system of public accounts.

27 Figures for Brunei are current expenditure on the Royal Brunei Armed Forces.

28 Figures for China are for estimated total military expenditures. On the estimates in local currency and share of GDP, see Wang, S., ‘The military expenditure of China, 1989–98’, SIPRI Yearbook 1999: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1999), pp. 334–49. Dollar figures are converted using the market exchange rate.

29 Figures for North Korea are converted to dollars using the PPP. Figures in the table for constant dollars are in current prices and 1998 exchange rate.

30 Figures for Nepal do not include expenditures on paramilitary forces, which in fiscal year 1998/99 amounted to 3315 million taka.

31 Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its independence from the former Yugoslavia in Mar. 1992 and was recognized by the European Community and the USA in Apr. 1992. The local currency since Jan. 1998 is the convertible mark, set at 1 convertible mark = 1 Deutsche Mark. Figures in US$ are at 1998 prices and exchange rates.

32 Croatia declared its independence from the former Yugoslavia in June 1991 and was recognized by the European Community in Jan. 1992 and by the United Nations in May 1992.

33 The Czech Republic was formed on 1 Jan. 1993 after the breakup of Czechoslovakia.

34 Czechoslovakia was divided into the Czech Republic and the Republic of Slovakia on 1 Jan. 1993. Figures in the table for constant dollars are in current prices and 1990 exchange rate.

35 Estonia became independent in Sep. 1991. Figures do not include expenditures for paramilitary forces.

36 Georgia became independent after the breakup of the Soviet Union in Dec. 1991. Figures are converted to dollars using the PPP. Figures probably do not include the significant amounts of military aid received from Turkey.

37 Latvia became independent in Sep. 1991. Figures do not include: (a) allocations for military pensions paid by Russia, which averaged 27 million lats per year over the three years 1996–98; or (b) expenditure on paramilitary forces, which amounted to 98.5 million lats in 1999.

38 Lithuania became independent in Sep. 1991.

39 Macedonia declared its independence from the former Yugoslavia in Nov. 1992 and was admitted to the United Nations in Apr. 1993.

40 For sources and methods of the military expenditure figures for the USSR and Russia, see Cooper, J., ‘The military expenditure of the USSR and the Russian Federation, 1987–97’, SIPRI Yearbook 1998: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1998),
pp. 243–59. Dollar figures are converted using the PPP.

41 The Slovak Republic was formed on 1 Jan. 1993 after the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Figures do not include expenditure on paramilitary forces. These amounted to 400 million korunas in 1998 and 458 million in 1999.

42 Slovenia declared its independence from the former Yugoslavia in June 1991 and was recognized by the European Community in Jan. 1992 and by the United Nations in May 1992. Figures have been revised according to the NATO definition, as provided to SIPRI by Slovenia for the years 1997–99.

43 Figures for Spain do not include a major part of government military research and development expenditure financed by the Ministry of Industry. Approximately 111.7 billion pesetas in 1998, 163.1 billion pesetas in 1999 and 159.4 billion pesetas in 2000.

44 Ukraine became independent after the breakup of the Soviet Union in Dec. 1991. Figures are converted to dollars using the PPP. Figures are for the adopted budget and include ‘national defence’ and some other defence items. Actual expenditure is reportedly 95–99% of budget for the years 1996–99 and about 80–90% of budget for 1994–95.

45 Serbia and Montenegro announced the creation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in Apr. 1992. Figures do not include revenues from the special defence tax introduced in 1998.

46 Figures for the UAE exclude local military expenditure by each of the 7 emirates that form the United Arab Emirates.

Source: SIPRI military expenditure database.

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